The analysis of historic glass painting technology based on the conservation of the coat of arms of the Great Guild's Alderman Johan Christopher Husen (1753) in Tallinn St Olaf's Church

Autor: 
Eve Koha
Number: 
Anno 2015
Rubriik: 
Preservation
TrükiPDF
ill 1. Johan Christopher von Husen's coat of arms painting (1753) located in the northern window of Tallinn St Olaf’s Church, 2007.

ill 1. Johan Christopher von Husen's coat of arms painting (1753) located in the northern window of Tallinn St Olaf’s Church, 2007. 

© Priit Rohtmäe

ill 2. St Olaf’s Church in Tallinn.

ill 2. St Olaf’s Church in Tallinn.  

© Peeter Säre

ill 3. Walther Carl Siegmund. Ruins of St Olaf’s Church in 1825. Lithography. 15.6 × 21.3 cm  EKM j 283: 1328 G, 3494, Estonian Art Museum.

ill 3. Walther Carl Siegmund. Ruins of St Olaf’s Church in 1825. Lithography. 15.6 × 21.3 cm  EKM j 283: 1328 G, 3494, Estonian Art Museum.

©

ill 4. Johan Christopher von Husen's coat of arms painting (1753) before the removal from the window.

ill 4. Johan Christopher von Husen's coat of arms painting (1753) before the removal from the window. 

© Liisi Junolainen

ill 5. Johan Christopher von Husen's coat of arms painting (1753) before conservation.

ill 5. Johan Christopher von Husen's coat of arms painting (1753) before conservation. 

© Siim Vaikna

ill 6. Painting on both sides of the glass.

ill 6. Painting on both sides of the glass. 

© Siim Vaikna

ill 7. The body tone of the angels is painted on the reverse side of the glass. Surfaces in gentle grisaille on the same side emphasise and smooth the shadows.

ill 7. The body tone of the angels is painted on the reverse side of the glass. Surfaces in gentle grisaille on the same side emphasise and smooth the shadows. 

© Siim Vaikna

ill 8. The scratches on the glass surface differ in depth.

ill 8. The scratches on the glass surface differ in depth. 

© Eve Koha

ill 9. Crackled and crumbly copper-green glass paint on the angel’s wing.

ill 9. Crackled and crumbly copper-green glass paint on the angel’s wing.

© Siim Vaikna

ill 10. The angel’s wing after coating with 10 % Paraloid B72 in toluoli.

ill 10. The angel’s wing after coating with 10 % Paraloid B72 in toluoli. 

© Eve Koha

ill 11. While painting the light direction is considered to provide sensitivity.

ill 11. While painting the light direction is considered to provide sensitivity.

© Siim Vaikna

ill 12. Light - half shade - full shade in the tip of the lion’s tail.

ill 12. Light - half shade - full shade in the tip of the lion’s tail. 

© Eve Koha

ill 13. Modelling the highlights area by scraping off the glass paint.

ill 13. Modelling the highlights area by scraping off the glass paint. 

© Eve Koha

ill 14. Modelling high and reflected light of the angel’s face by scraping off the glass paint.

ill 14. Modelling high and reflected light of the angel’s face by scraping off the glass paint. 

© Eve Koha

ill 15. Light consideration also applies to the silver stain.

ill 15. Light consideration also applies to the silver stain.

© Siim Vaikna

ill 16. Detail. Light consideration also applies to the silver stain.

ill 16. Detail. Light consideration also applies to the silver stain. 

© Siim Vaikna

ill 17. Copying in a light table. Glass type - company Saint Gobain Glass UMV 240.

ill 17. Copying in a light table. Glass type - company Saint Gobain Glass UMV 240. 

© Eve Koha

ill 18. Making a copy. Using a badger hair blender in application of silver stain.

Ill 18. Making a copy. Using a badger hair blender in application of silver stain. 

© Liisi Junolainen

ill 19. Making a copy. Pen-drawn contours and the text on the front and the silver stain on the reverse side.

ill 19. Making a copy. Pen-drawn contours and the text on the front and the silver stain on the reverse side. 

© Liisi Junolainen

ill 20. Making a copy. Depicting the darkest shadows and reflected light.

ill 20. Making a copy. Depicting the darkest shadows and reflected light.

© Liisi Junolainen

ill 21. Making a copy. Reflected light achieved by scraping off the glass paint.

ill 21. Making a copy. Reflected light achieved by scraping off the glass paint. 

© Liisi Junolainen

ill 22. Making a copy. Brush-painted angels’ body tone and copper-green wings on the reverse side of the glass.

ill 22. Making a copy. Brush-painted angels’ body tone and copper-green wings on the reverse side of the glass. 

© Eve Koha

ill 23. Making a copy. The holes in ceramic fibre paper are needed for the protection of painted surface in the firing process.

ill 23. Making a copy. The holes in ceramic fibre paper are needed for the protection of painted surface in the firing process. 

© Eve Koha

ill 24. Painting covered with Grisaille paint on the reverse side of the glass smoothes the shades.

ill 24. Painting covered with Grisaille paint on the reverse side of the glass smoothes the shades. 

© Eve Koha

ill 25. Johan Christopher von Husen's coat of arms painting (1753) after conservation.

ill 25. Johan Christopher von Husen's coat of arms painting (1753) after conservation. 

© Ülo Josing

ill 26. Copy of Johan Christopher von Husen's coat of arms painting (1753).

ill 26. Copy of Johan Christopher von Husen's coat of arms painting (1753).

© Ülo Josing

This article examines the coat of arms painting of the Great Guild Alderman Johan Christopher Husen (1753) located in St Olaf's Church in Tallinn. Husen's coat of arms is analysed as an example representing all ten coat of arms paintings and their details in this church. In 2012 St Olaf's Church administration together with the Tallinn Culture and Heritage Department coordinated the protection of historical glass paintings of the church. A decision to remove them from the windows was made in order to conserve the paintings. The aim was to display these rare glass paintings better in the nave niches of the church after conservation. Copies were ordered to replace the panes in their original location.

These glass paintings have been described iconographically but the technique is seldom touched upon. Only the grisaille technique, the use of different colours of paints and silver stain, as well as painting both sides of the glass, have been mentioned.

From the technical viewpoint the historical glass painting can be considered graphical or drawn. This requires very good drawing skills, excellent sense of colour, and knowledge of modelling shapes in terms of light and shadow.

In the historical paintings light is of very high significance giving the painting sensitivity and verve. The light almost always falls from the top left, north-west direction, which is of essential importance.

Modelling the shapes begins already in drawing. Lines are thinner and more delicate when exposed to light, but darker and more powerful in shadow.

The first layer is the most delicate shadow and covers the larger surfaces of the painting, where the darkness is directed from half shades towards full shades. The darkest is the area in full shade and surrounded by strong contours.  A similar approach was described by Theophilus in his book  Schedula diversarum artium in the 12th century.

Due to using a variety of tools and mixtures of substances, every grisaille painted layer does not need firing in the kiln separately. This is revealed in the examination of historical paintings, where the highlight has been refined through all the layers of the painting.

The glass painting firing process in the past was arduous and risky and therefore the development of glass painting techniques in the direction of lessening the number of kiln firings was understandable. The glass painting conservation and especially making a genuine copy requires a very careful glass painting technology analysis to understand the intentions of past artists.

Researching the historic background and technology in depth enables to achieve excellent results in conservation process by capturing the sense of historic glass painting instead of making mechanical copies.

Kasutatud materjalid: 

Koopia valmistamisel kasutatud materjalid

Hõbekollane nr 9176 Degussa, Saksamaa

Must klaasivärv nr 2129 Dulevo, Venemaa

Roostepruun nr 2132 Dulevo, Venemaa

Läbipaistev rubiinvärv nr 77436 Reusche & Co, USA

Isevalmistatud vaseroheline klaasivärv CuO + fluss (SiO₂, Pb₃O₄, H₂BO₃)

Suleõli, Oy Anders Meder Ab, Soome

Kummiaraabik (gummi arabic) – naturaalne kummivaik

Keraamiline fiiberpaber -  Cerama A/S, Taani

Viited: 

1. http://et.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oleviste_kirik (3.08.2014)

2. Simson, Sirje. Oleviste kunstiväärtused. Voldik. Tallinna Kultuuriväärtuste Amet, 2008.

3. grisaille – siin: monokroomne klaasimaal klaasivärviga, mis võimaldab luua suures ulatuses hele-tumeduse astmeid.

4. Hõbekollane – hõbedasoola (AgNO₃, AgCl või Ag2CO₃) ja täiendite segu klaasi toonimiseks difusiooni abil põletusprotsessis. Tulemusena värvub klaas helekollasest kuni pruunini.

5. Silindermeetod – aknaklaasi valmistamise meetod, kus puhutud silindervormil eemaldatakse mõlemad otsad ja seejärel avatakse vorm pikilõikega. Lõõmutuses silutakse klaasipind siledaks tahvliks.

6. Digitaalne mikroskoop Dino-Lite Premier  AM4113T, tööpiirkond  25 – 55x  suurendus, www.preservationequipment.com , www.dino-lite.eu.

7. Konserveerimistööd teostati SA EVM Konserveerimis ja Digiteerimiskeskuses Kanut, konsultant Heige Peets.

8. Theophilus. On Divers Arts. The Foremost Medieval Treatice on Painting, Glassmaking and Metalwork. Tõlge ladina keelest, eessõna ja märkused: John G. Hawthorne, Cyril Stanley Smith. Dover Publications, INC. New York, 1979. Lk 63–64.

9. Mägrakarvadest harjaspintsel  ̶  euroopa mägra karvadest pintsel, millel on pikad tugevad ja painduvad ning kiiresti kuivavad harjased. Kasutatakse klaasimaalis ühtlase või üleminekutega maalipinna modelleerimisel.

10. Elskus, Albinas. The Art of Painting on Glass. Technique and Designs for Stained Glass. Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1980. Lk 100.